(a) Buckminsterfullerene is an allotrope of carbon containing clusters of 60 carbon atoms joined together to form spherical molecules. (a) Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds : (e) What is the general name of compounds like Z ? Give their symbols/formulae. (f) Unsaturated (b) Due to its softness, powdered graphite can be used a lubricant whereas diamond being extremely hard can not be used as lubricant. (a) Give the name and structural formula of one member each of the following : C C4H8O (ii) 2-methylbutane Solution : Question 16: Write the structural formula of propyne. (a) A is propanol, CH3-CH2-CH2OH (d) The organic acid present in vinegar is……………….. (i) Which material burns by producing a yellow, luminous flame ? On the other hand, ethane being an alkane is a saturated compound which does not decolourise bromine water. Methanol, Question 4: Question 13: (a) Methane (single bond): (b) Write the electron-dot structure of A. Catenation is the ability of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the same element. (a)Diamonds can be made artificially by subjecting pure carbon to very high Write the formula of the acid and the alcohol from which it is formed. Question 31: Isopentane and neopentane. Solution : (b) The molecular (a) An organic compound X of molecular formula C2H4O2 gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogencarbonate. H2SO4 to form an ester. Will a micelle be formed in other solvents like ethanol also ? Write the structural formula of propyne. How many electrons are used to draw the electron-dot structure for ethane, a covalent compound with the formula C2H6? Methanoic acid is another member of this homologous series. Carbon and Silicon exhibit the property of catenation. With four single bonds, carbon has a tetrahedral structure, while with one double bond it's structure is trigonal planar, and with a triple bond it has a linear structure. Question 27: Name the product formed when hydrogen is added to ethene. Hydrogen can only form 1 bond.. (a) What are hydrocarbons ? Write the electron-dot structures for : (i) ethane, (ii) ethene, and (iii) ethyne. While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that: https://www.zigya.com/share/U0NFTjEwMTExODA5. (a) 20 hexagons (c) propanone. Alkynes : C2H2, C3H4 (a) The form of carbon which is known as black lead is…………………….. Due to this sheet like structure, graphite is a comparatively soft substance. (a) (i) CnH2n+2 (b) Write the molecular formula and structure of cyclohexane. C5H10; C6H12, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:225, Question 65: (b) Write the IUPAC names of the following : (l) Ethyne. The structural formula of an ester is : (b) Write the names of the following functional groups : The four surrounding atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. It is exhibited by both carbon and silicon. Y is ethanoic acid False, Question 25: (c)Diamond, graphite and buckminsterfullerene. (i) CH3COCH3 (ii) CH3COCH2CH3 Give the name of each series. Solution : Question 44: Describe one reaction of a carboxylic acid. (b) (i) Chloromethane – CH3Cl (b) Write (i) structural formula, and (ii) electron-dot structure, of any one isomer of n-heptane (C7H16) Solution : Question 41: (c) Uses of ethanol: List two tests for experimentally distinguishing between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid and describe how these tests are performed. Solution : Name one fuel which contains both these isomers. What are X, Y and Z ? some warm ethanol in a test-tube ? Compare the ability of catenation of the two elements. (e) C7H14; (f) What is the general name of the reaction which takes place between X and Y to form Z ? Inside water, these molecules have a unique orientation that keeps the hydrocarbon portion inside the water. ** The shape of methane is tetrahedral and all H-C-H bond angles are 109.5°. Solution : (ii) Two consecutive homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae. 14. Solution : Solution : Question 58: Activity: Take a boiling tube and put about 0.5 g of sodium carbonate in it. (a) How would you test for an alcohol ? (b) When materials X, Y and Z are burned separately : What is the common name of propanone ? (c) What will you observe when dilute ethanoic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid are put on universal indicator paper, one by one ? (iv) A sweet smell is obtained indicating the formation of an ester. Question 71: This shows that it is made up of carbon only like diamond and graphite. (a)Salt X is sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa; Gas Y is carbon dioxide, CO2 C is methanol, CH3OH (a) Draw the structures for the following compounds : A solitary carbon atom has four electrons, two in the 2s orbital, and one in each of the 2\(p_x\) and … This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance. Add 2 ml of dilute ethanoic acid to the boiling tube (through a thistle funnel). With the help of a suitable example, explain the process of hydrogenation, mentioning the conditions of the reaction and any one change in physical property with the formation of the product. A colourless organic liquid X of molecular formula C2H402 turns blue litmus to red. Name the gas evolved when ethanoic acid is added to sodium carbonate. C3H4; C2H6 Solution : Question 34: Question.26 Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule (C 2 H 6). (c) Which of the two has a branched chain : isobutane or normal butane ? (c) Name the allotrope C. C2H4 and C3H4 will give addition reactions because these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkene and Alkyne) and unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reactions. Question 5: Diamond: (a) Ethanoic acid (b) Propanoic acid Name the functional group of organic compounds that can be hydrogenated. (iii) Z (natural gas). (b) Choose those compounds from the following which can turn blue litmus solution red : What is the molecular formula and structural formula of a cyclic hydrocarbon whose one molecule contains 8 hydrogen atoms ? (c) Unlike ethanol, drinking methanol, even in a small quantity can be fatal leading to permanent blindness and even death. Question 69: (a) What is the unique property of carbon atom ? See the answer. Come from this bond is the compound formation and progressing toward more … (i) Ethanal (ii) Propanal (iii) Butanal (iv) Pentanal Solution : (a) Give IUPAC names and formulae of an organic compound containing single bonds and the other These solid carbon particles rise in the flame, get heated and glow to give out yellowish light. (g) Ethyne has…….. carbon-hydrogen single bonds. (d) Diamonds are used for making jewellery. Write equation of the reaction involved. IUPAC name: methanal, Question 5: (b) Explain why, graphite can be used as a lubricant but diamond cannot. Why ? (e) How many isomers of the following hydrocarbons are possible ? CH4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H6, C5H12, C5H10 Using electron-dot diagrams which show only the outermost shell electrons show how a molecule of oxygen O2 is formed from two oxygen atoms. [DoE,AI2015] (a) Graphite is a greyish-black opaque substance. (i) ethyne (ii) ethene (iii) benzene (a) Which compound is most likely to be sweet-smelling ? (a) Activity: The electron dot structure of ethane molecule, C2H6 is as follows: 232, Block C-3, Janakpuri, New Delhi, Write the molecular formula of the following compounds and draw their electron-dot structures : (Foreign 2015) (i) Ethane (ii) Ethene (iii) Ethyne Answer: Question 25. (b) A carboxylic acid reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide gas but an alcohol does not react with sodium hydrogencarbonate. (f) Which allotrope is used in making anode of a dry cell ? (f) B, Question 64: Name one chemical compound which can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. 15. (b) Ethanoic acid – Acetic acid. (e) C Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. [Delhi 2011] Answer/Explanation. (b) A diamond crystal is a giant molecule of carbon atoms. Solution : They undergo addition reaction in the presence of a catalyst like nickel or palladium. Graphite is used as a lubricant in the form of graphite powder or mixed with petroleum jelly or with any lubricant oil to form graphite grease. (c) State two uses of ethanol (other than as a fuel). Example: Ethene reacts with hydrogen in the presence of finely divided nickel as catalyst to form ethane. (iii) Pour the contents of the test-tube in about 50 ml of water taken in another beaker and smell it. Show transcribed image text. © Question 27: Solved: Write the Lewis Dot structure for the following and determine its main intermolecular force. Question 16: ethyne dot structure ethyne electron dot structure ethyne lewis dot structure. (c) Addition reactions are a characteristic of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Question 11: (e) CH3COOH; Acetic acid (b) Propanol, CH3-CH2-CH2-OH H2SO4. Nickel or palladium can be used as catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Solution : Question 11: C2H4 Answer: (a) 2, 8, 7. Also write its formula. (a) What is compound A ? Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule, C 2 H 6. Solution : The tendency of main group atoms to form enough bonds to obtain eight valence electrons is known as the octet rule. Write chemical equation of the reaction involved. (b) What happens when ethanol is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C ? (b) Liquid Y is Propanone; it belongs to homologous series of ketones. (ii) Alcohol group: -OH (a) Element E: Carbon Solution : (a) Carbon forms a large number of carbon compounds because carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains of carbon atoms. (b) Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution of water. Write the electron-dot structures for : (i) ethane, (ii) ethene, and (iii) ethyne. Will the current flow through the electrical circuit when we use the sharpened ends of the pencil to complete the circuit ? Name its homologous series. Each carbon atom in ethane is also tetrahedral, and all bond angles are approximately 109.5°. Graphite (ii) Heavy drinking of alcohol on a particular occasion leads to staggered movement, slurred speech and vomiting. Explain with an example. Question 56: Solution : Question 35: The four surrounding carbon atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Molecular formula of ethene is C 2 H 4 electron dot structure of ethene CH 2 = CH 2 (b) The general formula of a homologous series of carbon compounds is CnH2n. Write the names and structural formulae : (d) Y is used for making graphite electrodes or carbon electrodes in dry cells. Solution : (iii) Alcohol group Why does ethyne (acetylene) burn with a sooty flame ? (d) C5H8; Question 28: (ii) Chloroethane – C2H5Cl Solution : Question 18: State whether the following statement is true or false : (b) How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid on the basis of a chemical property ? (ii) It is used as a solvent. (c) Denatured alcohol is ethyl alcohol which has been made unfit for drinking purposes by adding small amounts of poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, copper sulphate etc. (d) Name one use of allotrope Y (other than lubrication and pencil leads) Question 74: Solution : (b) Why are coal and petroleum called fossil fuels ? Solution : (c) Why is graphite a good conductor of electricity but diamond is a non-conductor of electricity ? [Hint: The eight atoms of sulphur are joined together in the form of a ring. Write the name of another member of this homologous series. Formaldehyde, Question 6: (ii) It is used in the manufacture of acetone and esters used in perfumes. (a) What happens when carbon burns in air ? IUPAC name: Ethanol, Question 18: (i) Alkene group (ii) Alkyne group Question 9: Solution : Solution : Solution : (e) Propanone, CH3-CO-CH3, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:262. (i) CH3COOH (ii) CH3CH2CHO (iii) C2H5OH (iv) CH3COCH2CH3 (b) What is compound B ? (a) What happens when methane reacts with chlorine ? Solution : Question 14: Ethanol is used as an additive in petrol. (d) Used for making jewellery Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used ? The addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon to obtain a saturated hydrocarbon is called hydrogenation. Name the functional group present in an organic compound which gives brisk effervescence with NaHC03. Ex: Sodium n-dodecyl benzene sulphonate. Question 45: Give the name and formula of the ester formed. Give the name and formula of X. Question 24: Of what substance is diamond made ? Which of the following compounds can have a double bond ? (b) Why is ethanol used as a fuel ? (a) The property of self combination of carbon atoms to form long chains is called catenation. Write the names and formulae of two organic compounds containing different heteroatoms. Solution : Question 28: (ii) Urea, CO(NH2)2 Write its name and structural formula. (d) Name the functional group which always occurs in the middle of a carbon chain. (a) X is coal; Y is wax; Z is natural gas (c) Write the molecular formulae of the third and fifth members of homologous series of carbon compounds represented by the general formula CnH2n+2. (ii) CnH2n Fifth member: C5H12, Question 27: formula of butane is C4H10; Its isomers are n-butane Name the hardest natural substance known. Question 33: Common salt is added to precipitate out all the soap from the aqueous solution. (a) What is a soap ? (c) When soap is used for washing clothes with hard water, a large amount of soap in water is reacting with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form an insoluble precipitate called scum, before it can be used for the real purpose of washing. Also write their formulae showing the functional group present in them. Solution : (a) Name the reaction which is usually used in the conversion of vegetable oils to fats. Question 14: (b) Saturated Hydrocarbons: These are the ones in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single bonds. Solution : Question 13: C6H12, C6H14, C6H10 (b) C6H6 So, the wax vapours bum in an insufficient supply of oxygen (of air) which leads to incomplete combustion of wax. We can also represent the formula as a Lewis dot structure which shows us the distribution of atoms and electrons … Into c graphite is a strong acid neutral organic compound formed hydrogen covalent bonds a! In Lewis-dot structure each atom of C3H8 is replaced by one O atom circuit when we Use sharpened. Solvents for oils, fats, gums, resins, cellulose, paints, varnishes etc. By How many carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds are there in laboratory! 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